CN: Family Planning Posters: 80’s.

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1983: Happy in One’s Heart

Designer: Zhang Dejun (张德俊)
1983, August
Happy in one’s heart
Xi zai xintou (喜在心头)
Publisher: Zhejiang renmin meishu chubanshe (浙江人民美术出版社)
Size: 77×53 cm.
Call number: PC-1983-002 (Private collection)
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Happy In One’s Heart.

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1986: Family Planning Basic National Policy

Propaganda posters were widely employed in the ‘one child’-campaign, which started in 1979 in an attempt to deal with the staggering increase of the population in the 1960s and 1970s and to curb the projected problematic growth in the future. This campaign went much further than the “late, spaced and few”-campaign that had been started in the early 1970s. Reflecting the traditional educational purposes of the posters, special materials were produced that paid attention to aspects of reproduction, sexuality and conception. The responsible departments for these educational materials could range from ministries to local population policy centers.

Designer: Zhou Yuwei (周玉玮)
1986
Carry out family planning, implement the basic national policy
Shixing jihua shengyu, guanche jiben guoce (实行计划生育贯彻基本国策)
Publisher: Liaoning “Xin jiating” baoshe (《新家庭》报社)
Size: 53×77 cm.
Call number: BG E13/415 (Landsberger collection)
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Family Planning Basic National Policy.

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1980’s: Population Education Hanging Charts

‘Posters popularizing the science of family planning’ explained the mechanism of human reproduction, and the various available methods to limit one’s offspring to a single child. They were produced for use in glass display cases erected in streets or for community rooms. Such educational posters included explanations about what a woman feels when she is pregnant, the use of condoms, etc. It should be no surprise that such posters in many cases contributed in a major way to an increase of the general sexual knowledge of many people, something that often was lacking.

Designer/editor: Jiangsu jiaoyu xueyuan (江苏教育学院); Jiangsusheng dianhua jiaoyuguan (江苏省电化教育馆)
Late 1980s
Population education hanging charts (series title)
Renkou jiaoyu gua tu (人口教育挂图)
Publisher: Renmin jiaoyu chubanshe (人民教育出版社)
Call number: BG E13/596 (Landsberger collection)
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Population Education Hanging Charts.

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1986: Clever and Pretty, Healthy and Lovely

Designer: Cao Shuqin (曹淑勤)
1986
Clever and pretty, healthy and lovely
Meili congming, jiankang ke’ai (美丽聪明健康可爱
Publisher: “Xin jiating” baoshe, Liaoning (《新家庭》报社)
Size: 77×53 cm.
Call number: BG E13/174 (Landsberger collection)
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Clever and Pretty, Healthy and Lovely.

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1986: Better Birth and Upbringing, Sturdily Growing

Designer: Wang Yuqi (王玉琦)
1986
Bette(r) birth and upbringing, sturdily growing
Yousheng youyu, zhuozhuang chengzhang (优生优育,茁壮成长)
Publisher: “Xin jiating” baoshe, Liaoning (《新家庭》报社)
Size: 77×53 cm.
Call number: BG E13/175 (Landsberger collection)
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Sturdily Growing.

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1986: Good Job in Family Planning to Promote Economic Development

Western bridal clothes were not the only indication that the people’s livelihood was improving. Various elements of economic development started to creep into the more traditional poster-design. This started with highrise buildings in the background, and ended with the use of Western imagery: space ships, atomic symbols, even remote controls. The visual element that many of these posters have in common is the dove; this bird is not presented as the traditional emblem of long life, but as the internationally accepted icon of peace.

Designer: Zhang Zhenhua (张振华)
1986, April
Do a good job in family planning to promote economic development
Gaohao jihua shengyu, cujin jingji fazhan (搞好计划生育促进经济发展)
Publisher: Liaoning “Xin jiating” baoshe (《新家庭》报社)
Size: 53×77 cm.
Call number: BG E13/442 (Landsberger collection)
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Good Job Family Planning.

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1987: Science of Family Planning

In order to communicate the message that the offspring of a couple from now on should be limited to one child, traditional visual elements from nianhua (New Year prints) were used that were known to appeal to the people. The pictures featuring chubby baby boys and gold carp attracted the population of both rural and urban areas, whether or not they contained slogans to the effect that ‘one is better.’

Designer: Qi Linjia (祁林家)
1987
Posters popularizing the science of family planning, three sheets
Jihua shengyu kepu huabao (计划生育科普画报)
Publisher: Liaoningsheng jihua shengyu xuanchuan jiaoyu fenzhongxin (辽宁省计划生育宣传教育分中心)
Size: 53×77 cm.
Call number: BG E13/171 (Landsberger collection)
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Science of Family Planning.

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1987: Marry Late, Conceive Late

Designer: Wang Guangbo (王广博), Ma Jie (马杰)
1987
Marry late, conceive late
Wanhun, wanyu (晚婚晚育)
Publisher: Liaoningsheng lianhe jihua shengyu xuanchuanpin bianji weiyuanhui (辽宁省联合制作计划生育宣传品编辑委员会)
Size: 53×38 cm.
Call number: BG D25/8 (Landsberger collection)
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Marry Late Conceive Late Calender.

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1987: Less Births, Better Births; to Develop China Vigorously

Designer unknown (佚名)
1987
Less births, better births, to develop China vigorously
Shaosheng yousheng zhenxing Zhonghua (少生优生振兴中华)
Publisher: Beijing jihua shengyu xuanchuan jiaoyu zhongxin (北京计划生育宣传教育中心)
Size: 77×53 cm.
Call number: BG E13/871 (Landsberger collection)

In the 1980s, the One Child Policy is enforced, with more success in the cities than in the countryside. On posters like this it is usually girls that are shown, to indicate that they are worth as much as boys.
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Less Births, Better Births.

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1987: Eugenics Cause Happiness

As the campaign progressed, the aim of having fewer children was equated with an increase in the national development of wealth for all. The single child would contribute to the national policy of modernization and reform. With fewer children to take care of, the ‘inherent quality’ of those children that were born would improve. By the mid-1980s, the urgings to limit the number of children increasingly were grounded in authoritative scientific justifications that stressed that in this way, the gene pool could be improved. These arguments were given a legal character in the mid-1990s with the introduction of legislation to promote eugenics. A recurring argument was that parents could concentrate on their single child and devote more time to their upbringing.

Designer: Gao Junfeng (高俊峰)
1987, July
Eugenics cause happiness
Yousheng xingfu (优生幸福)
Publisher: Shanghai renmin meishu chubanshe (上海人民美术出版社)
Size: 77×53 cm.
Call number: BG E15/47 (Landsberger collection)
– Chinese Posters: Population Policy: Eugenics cause Happiness.

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Sources:

Vanessa L. Fong, Only Hope – Coming of Age under China’s One-Child Policy (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004)

Tyrene White, China’s Longest Campaign – Birth Planning in the People’s Republic, 1949-2005 (Ithaca, etc.: Cornell University Press, 2006)

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